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One more second record by the collector Mr. Costantinos Kontadakis from S Greece is discussed in the relevant section. The protoconch is formed by four moderately convex whorls, the first of which is covered with tiny granules and followed by numerous axial ribs interrupted by a single keel up to the beginning of the teleoconch.

The late is formed by 10 almost flat whorls separated by a deep suture which is highlighted in relation to the interspaces between the spiral cords.

The sculpture consists of spiral cords wider than the interspaces and formed by smooth and rounded pearl-like tubercules which are aligned axially.

In the first whorl of the teleoconch there are only two cords, with a third one sandwiched in between them from the fourth whorl and growing rapidly to become of even thickness with the two others.

The last whorl is tapered at its base, with an additional granular cord in prolongation of the suture and two more cords between that fourth cord and the siphonal canal.

Aperture with a simple, somewhat expanded outer lip and a deep notch near the suture. A thick siphonal canal opened only by a narrow slit and forming a conical projection.

The shell is pale chestnut in color, with slightly darker the protoconch, the adapical part of the teleoconch and the tip of the siphonal canal and with slightly lighter the pearls of the third cord.

The protoconch is pointed, with five moderately convex whorls, the first of which is covered with tiny granules, while the rest ones with numerous axial riblets.

In its second whorl there is only one spiral keel and in the following whorls two keels narrower than their interspace. The more or less slender teleoconch consists of 11 almost flat whorls.

In the first round of the teleoconch there are only two cords with a third appearing in between them from the sixth whorl and then increasing in thickness.

The last whorl narrows sharply at its base with an initially slightly wrinkled cord and subsequently beaded cord in the prolongation of the suture and two more cords between that and the siphonal canal.

The aperture bears a simple, somewhat expanded external lip with fragile edge and a deep notch by the suture. The cords by the end of the spire do not divide.

The siphonal canal is short, almost closed and forming a conical projection. Very deep chestnut-brown background color all over the shell including the protoconch and its adapical part and much lighter to pale yellowish pearls.

The animal had white and translucent tentacules. Only known from the Strait of Gibraltar and Southern Portugal [ 22 , 27 ].

One more first record by the collector Mr. Mpazios from S Greece is discussed in the relevant section. The pointed protoconch bears four very convex whorls, the first of which is covered with tiny intersecting lines while the last two whorls bear a double keel the cords of which are narrower than the interspace and are crossed by numerous, irregular and fine axial riblets.

The teleoconch bears 16 almost flat whorls separated by a shallow suture which is difficult to distinguish from the spaces between the cords.

The sculpture costists of spiral cords the interspaces of which are much wider than their pointed tubercules which are aligned but not attached axially.

At the onset of the teleoconch there are only two cords with a third cord appearing bellow the suture from the fourth whorl and then increasing in thickness.

The last whorl bears an additional wrinkled cord in prolongation of the suture. Aperture with a simple lip, a straight columella and a short siphonal canal.

Color of randomly arranged alternating cream-white and chestnut-brown areas covering sections of the shell but without conforming to its sculpture.

The pointed protoconch bears four highly convex whorls with sculpture formed by two prominent and narrow keels positioned in the middle of the whorls and axial ribs crossed by even thinner, slightly prosocline, ones that extend from suture to suture.

The teleoconch bears 14 almost straight whorls, with axial ribs and spiral cords forming cross-shaped pearls in their intersection with the ribs.

The first three whorls show two cords with a third one appearing gradually under the suture and progressively increasing in thickness to become equivalent in width to the two others by the last whorl.

The pearls of the cords are acute and give the sculpture a rough appearance. The last whorl bears at its base a fourth, more or less, smooth cord below the suture and forms a somewhat concave smooth base.

The square aperture has a straight columella, a short siphonal canal and a simple outer lip. The shell exhibits an uneven chestnut-brown color, lighter to yellowish in the first whorls of the teleoconch and in some parts of the later whorls.

Atlantic and SW Mediterranean [ 22 ]. The pointed protoconch is formed by four moderately convex whorls, the first of which bears only very fine spiral striae that extent to the rest three whorls.

In addition to that sculptural decoration, these late three whorls are decorated with numerous, somewhat curved, fine axial ribs that extend from suture to suture and are interrupted by a carina which bears a thin spiral cord up to the end of the protoconch.

The teleoconch has 10 slightly convex whorls and a fairly deep suture. The sculpture is made up initially of two spiral cords, but from the fourth whorl of the teleoconch a third cord appears just below the suture and increases in width to become equally wide with the other two cords by the last whorl.

The cords are approximately of equal width as the interspaces, with smooth and rather flat tubercules that are aligned axially to form ribs.

The last whorl diminishes sharply in width by its base and exhibits an additional rather smooth cord in prolongation of the suture.

In the proximity of that cord there is a smoother one preceeding a concave area before a short siphonal canal. Light honey color all over the shell including the protoconch.

The pointed protoconch is formed by five moderately convex whorls decorated with numerous, somewhat curved, fine axial riblets that extend from suture to suture; these riblets are overlaid by an extremely thin and hard to see spiral sculpture.

The teleoconch has 8 almost flat whorls with a fairly deep suture. Sculpture made up of three spiral cords, slightly wider than the interspaces, with smooth and rounded tubercules that are aligned axially to form ribs.

In the first whorl of the teleoconch, the adapical cord lower one is much weaker than the two cords above, then increases in thickness but only in the last whorl it becomes as thick as those two.

The last whorl exhibits an additional smooth cord in prolongation of the suture and a smooth concave area between that cord and the short siphonal canal.

Light brown to medium-brown color all over the shell including its protoconch. Protoconch ivory-white, styliform, with four moderately convex whorls bearing flexural axial ribs.

Teleoconch with five whorls and a deep suture. Sculpture consisting of tree spiral cords, only two in the first whorl of the teleoconch with a third one formed below the suture and increasing in width in the following whorls.

The last whorl which narrows towards its base bears a wrinkled cord as a continuation of the suture and an additional very prominent and also wrinkled one before the siphonal canal.

The outer lip of the aperture is simple, fragile and white in contrast to the rest of the teleoconch which is of bright red-brown color.

Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea but only known from a few locations of its western basin [ 22 , 27 ]. The protoconch consists of four slightly convex whorls that form a blunt apex.

Just below its suture there is a series of tiny elongated nodules while just over it there is an additional series of nodules forming a very thin cord.

The three adapical whorls form a weak carina at their lower part. The teleoconch consists of seven slightly convex whorls.

The sculpture is made up of three spiral cords and two more in the last whorl bellow the suture. The upper cord on the spire is weaker than the medium cord and stuck to it, gradually increasing in width and distancing away until by the last whorl it becomes the wider cord.

The last whorl narrows at its base, with an extra grainy cord in prolongation of the suture and another one between that and the siphonal canal. The aperture bears a simple, fragile and white outer lip.

Light brown color on the protoconch, cinnamon-brown on the spire with brighter the pearls and the additional cords of the base. Atlantic and Mediterranean Sea [ 22 ].

The teleoconch consists of eight, nearly flat, whorls. Its spiral sculpture is composed of three cords made of series of smooth pearls. The adapical cord is initially weaker than the two lower ones but eventually grows equally strong in the last four whorls to become the dominant cord that gives the shell its scalaroid outlook and is distant from the median cord.

The body whorl narrows smoothly at its base, with an extra wavy cord in prolongation of the suture and another one between that and the siphonal canal.

This last whorl is decorated with 21 ribs weaker than the spiral cords and giving rise to equidistant conspicuous nodules.

These nodules become axially ovate on the last three whorls. The suture is deep leading the whorls to be well separated from each other. Aperture sub-quadrangular, smooth and wide.

Outer lip simple, thin, orthocline and white. Anal canal broad and short, siphonal canal open and short.

Viewed through the aperture, transparency makes visible the sculptural pattern of the spire. Chocolate-brown color on the protoconch, the background of the teleoconch and the base with brighter pearls on the spire.

The animal, that quickly withdrew itself into the shell, had a white foot and a dark grey head. The teleoconch consists of eight almost flat whorls.

The sculpture is formed by two cords of about the same width as the interspaces, with rounded pearl-like tubercules. The cord bellow the suture shows pearls with a tendency to widen axially forming elongated tubercules that finally divide as they approach the outer edge of the aperture concatenata.

The last whorl narrows at its base and bears two extra cords, a grainy one in prolongation of the suture and a smooth narrower one between the grainy one and the siphonal canal.

The outer lip of the aperture is simple, fragile, flairy and white in contrast to the vivid chestnut-red color of the rest of the shell, which becomes paler towards the shells apex.

Known from the Atlantic and the E Mediterranean Sea [ 22 , 27 ]. Among the 37 identified species, 16 are referred for the first time for the Hellenic fauna raising its gastropod biodiversity from species [ 19 ] and additions by Manousis et al.

The current enrichment of the studied families in the NW Aegean with 16 new species for Greece with the vast majority of them being minute in size and collected from hard biogenic substrates , 14 of which are new for the E Mediterranean Sea and one of them being new for the Mediterranean Sea, was expected to take place.

It is attributed to i the few and, in some cases, old studies on the gastropod fauna of the area, ii the lack of search in various environments as far as the different depths and the types of substrate is concerned iii the collection tactics related to the type of habitats, to all possible and available material and substrate sources e.

The finding of the newly described minute species of Anatoma micalli reveals, apart from the research gaps, the identification difficulties on the Anatoma species, attributed to numerous misidentifications, the various chresonyms and synonyms mainly of the species A.

After the collection of Obesula marisnostri specimen during this study, three more live individuals and a shell 7. The specimen of Strobiligera flammulata of this study was collected one month later 26 June after 26 May the collector George Mpazios collected one shell 8.

The almost simultaneous findings of Obesula marisnostri and Strobiligera flammulata both from N and S Greece indicates that i they are wider distributed in the Hellenic Seas and the Eastern Mediterranean Sea, ii independent searches from the same type of substrates e.

The unexpected and simultaneous finding of two live individuals very similar to the species Cerithiopsis oculisfictis did not give us the time to examine in detail the color pattern of the living animal and look for the two characteristic for the species black spots on the propodium [ 32 ], and, therefore, their identification has to remain as C.

Moreover, at the species level, the color pattern of the head-foot propodium comprises a diagnostic feature in the Cerithiopsis tubercularis complex [ 33 ].

Among the new findings, Emarginula decorata - referred from SE Africa [ 23 ], the Reunion Islands, Red Sea and the Arabian Gulf [ 21 ] - is a new alien mollusc species for the Mediterranean Sea added to the already recorded ones by [ 34 ].

The dispersal of such a benthic organism is attributed to biological endogenic and environmental exogenic parameters.

Nevertheless, the climate changes in the Mediterranean Sea and the almost different alien species recorded by [ 34 ] have particularly changed the biodiversity during the last two or three decades having as a result the publication of numerous articles in which the reasons for occurrence of aliens in the Mediterranean Sea, the frequency of the records, the vectors and the distribution pathways have been extensively discussed e.

Shipping is directly connected with the introduction of only 12 species, whereas it is indirectly assumed as being the most probable way for the introduction via ballasts or fouling of another species [ 34 ].

The alien species Emarginula decorata recorded from Siggitikos Gulf indicate that its possible vector is the sea currents rather than the limited navigation in that area.

Suez Canal is one of the most significant hot points for alien dispersal to the East and the West [ 41 ]. Following the sea currents model in the Mediterranean Sea, the eastern current direction is correlated with the northward progressive dispersal of the Lessepsian molluscs along the coasts of Israel, Lebanon, Syria, and from there towards the southern coasts of Turkey and the coasts of Cyprus, and, finally, in-between the Greek islands of the E Aegean and the Aegean coasts of Turkey [ 41 — 45 ].

The sea surface currents in the Eastern Mediterranean Sea. The pink arrows represent the currents probably responsible for the expansion of the Lessepsian molluscs and the blue thinning zone shows the probable pathway of that expansion from the Suez Canal towards north up to the NW Aegean Sea.

Heavy ink arrows indicate the main pathway and the light ones a secondary pathway. Reconstructed map for the currents according to Robinson et al.

The work continues on other molluscan families and expands in more areas while collaborations between researchers and collectors could effectively improve the marine biodiversity profiles of the Hellenic Seas.

Thirty seven species, the majority of which is of minute size, belonging to seven families Cerithiopsidae, Fissurellidae, Phasianellidae, Scissurellidae, Siliquariidae, Skeneidae, and Triphoridae were identified.

Among those, one Emarginula decorata Deshayes, is a new alien for the Mediterranean Sea, 14 are new for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea and 16 are new for the Hellenic fauna with the two above mentioned alien species included.

The new findings are attributed both to the sampling methods employed and the under- or unsearched marine environments as far as different types of substrates and depths are concerned.

Based on the new findings of this study, the pathway of alien species distribution to the N and NW Aegean Sea [ 46 ] is extended up to Thermaikos Gulf.

That particular material from the Toronaeos Gulf was consisting mainly of biogenic substrate pieces, accompanied, in cases, by parts of maerl.

For each species collected, the following data have been recorded: Information from specific web sites was also taken into account 30 June The specimens are deposited in the premises of the Alexander Technological Educational Institute of Thessaloniki and those of Dr.

Scientists are welcome to have access to the biological material at will. The authors are grateful to the two anonymous referees for their usefull contribution to improve the publication.

They are also honored by Mr. Constantinos Kontadakis and Mr. George Mpazios entrusting to them the images and relevant information of their Obesula marisnostri and Strobiligera flammulata shells.

Both authors read and approved the final manuscript. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. J Biol Res Thessalon. Published online Nov Thanasis Manousis and Sofia Galinou-Mitsoudi.

Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer. Received Mar 12; Accepted Oct This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd.

This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Background The NW Aegean Sea has a complex topography, high quality waters, oligotrophic to eutrophic conditions, is connected with estuaries and wetlands, is of high ecological interest, harbours all the types of human activities and yet few researchers work on its marine biodiversity.

Results Thirty seven species belonging to seven families Cerithiopsidae, Fissurellidae, Phasianellidae, Scissurellidae, Siliquariidae, Skeneidae, and Triphoridae were identified and their biodiversity was compared with the current checklists of marine gastropod molluscs for the Hellenic Seas based on previous surveys.

Conclusions The Hellenic gastropod biodiversity of the studied families was enriched with 37 new records for the N Aegean Sea, out of which 16 are new for Greece, 14 are new for the Eastern Mediterranean Sea while one Emarginula decorata is a new alien for the Mediterranean Sea.

Open in a separate window. Results The records As a result of this investigation, approximately specimens were collected and 37 species were identified.

Table 1 Gastropods records, habitat and distribution details in the study area. Fissurellidae Emarginula decorata Deshayes, synonym of E.

Discussion Among the 37 identified species, 16 are referred for the first time for the Hellenic fauna raising its gastropod biodiversity from species [ 19 ] and additions by Manousis et al.

Conclusions Thirty seven species, the majority of which is of minute size, belonging to seven families Cerithiopsidae, Fissurellidae, Phasianellidae, Scissurellidae, Siliquariidae, Skeneidae, and Triphoridae were identified.

Acknowledgements The authors are grateful to the two anonymous referees for their usefull contribution to improve the publication.

Footnotes Competing interests The authors declare that they have no competing interests. The blue oceanic regions near the poles are where the seafloor is collapsing and therefore deepening the ocean basins.

Water therefore migrates into these areas and global sea level falls. The other aspect of ocean siphoning is due to the collapse of the seafloor close to the continents, by the addition of meltwater.

As water mass was added to the global oceans, all the ocean basins were subjected to loading, but is is only near the continents that this extra loading caused the ocean floor to flex downward.

The situation near the continents is somewhat different to the behaviour in the central ocean basins because the adjacent ocean floor is subjected to extra loading, whereas the continents are not being above sea level.

This unequal loading forces the downward flexure of the Earth's surface under the ocean, and uplift of the continents.

In response, the more fluid-like material down in the Earth's mantle is displaced sideways by the downward flexure of the ocean basin, and therefore is forced to flow under the continents - where there is no extra loading Clark [].

This does not happen in the centre of the ocean basins, with extra glacial meltwater loading, because there is nowhere for the viscous mantle material to be laterally displaced to.

Once again, the adjustment for this process is long and continued on well after the ice sheets had ceased supplying meltwater to the oceans.

In fact, so substantial are the combined effects glacial forebulge collapse and continental levering that even today satellite altimetry measurements have be be revised upward at a globally-averaged 0.

Figure 4 - the effects of continental levering on present-day global sea level rise. As you will note in Figure 5 both these ocean-siphoning mechanisms reinforce each other as one progresses toward the polar regions.

Also apparent is that the bright red and dark blue oceanic areas in Figures are off the colour chart scale. These trends are so extreme because of forebulge collapse and post glacial uplift in these zones.

Figure 5 - the combined effects of both ocean siphoning mechanisms on present-day global sea level rise. This image depicts the current, and ongoing, deepening of the ocean basins occurring today.

Over the last several decades there has been a fair amount of scientific debate over various aspects of the sea level rise since the last ice age - such as the exact timing of the glacial maximum, how much ice was locked up in the gargantuan land-based ice sheets, and the exact timing of the sea level highstand, but the cessation of land ice melt in the late Holocene is a robust feature of the deglaciation models.

An ongoing sea level rise throughout this period, as argued in Fleming , would yield a serious mismatch with sea level proxy records, even if sea level were rising at only 0.

And a trend as large as 0. Fig 6 - Deglaciation modelling of "relative" sea level rise which includes a "theoretical" addition of meltwater to the oceans over the last years.

The rates of theoretical sea level rise are 0. Image from Peltier As well as the deglaciation modeling, paleo sea level research also precludes any appreciable land ice melt over this year interval - as sea level markers indicate that relative sea level continued to fall during this time.

There are also other lines of scientific evidence that won't be delved into here, but we can be reasonably confident that the current sea level rise of 3.

This conclusion is gradually being strengthened as more paleo sea level records are resolved, as they too indicate that the volume of the global oceans has remained static over the last years Woodroffe [].

Further research will no doubt refine the picture and resolve some outstanding conflicts, but the general sea level trend since the last ice age is unlikely to be altered much.

I have a question regarding the change in sea level since the holoscene high stand , years ago, as is referenced in this statement: I question whether siphoning has been the only or major factor, as we have plenty of research indicating that ice sheets and glaciers have grown over the past thousand years - until about years ago: Antarctica - general ice sheet volume increase during holoscene.

I know this NASA research is being contested with regards to current net volume change, but have not seen discussion to dispute that Antarctica ice sheet volume has grown during the holoscene overall: In Greenland the now disintegrated Jacobshavn glacier was estimated to be about 2, years old by DMI, and research in the Alps as well as for southern hemisphere glaciers similarly indicate growth in most recent millenia now changing into retreat.

Therefore, it would seem reasonable to assume that growth in glacier and ice sheet volume since the holoscene high stand has caused a decline in mean sea level, and that also the ocean sea bed should have been lifting in response to the reduced ocean volume.

Has land-based ice volume changes since the holoscene high stand been considered for this model? Both ice sheets have seen an acceleration of ice mass loss since I am not questioning AGW or the present net mass loss situation in Antarctica or elsewhere.

My question was if the glacier and ice sheet growth until about years ago have been considered in the sea level model, or if land ice volume of the period since the holoscene high stand was assumed to be constant?

You question 14 was "whether siphoning has been the only or major factor, as we have plenty of research indicating that ice sheets and glaciers have grown over the past thousand years - until about years ago.

If we are talking "major" factors, there is but one. The highstand is the result of siphoning. The literature is still trying to nail down the timing of the final reductions in ice volumes eg see Bradley et al which are greatly more significant than any increases in ice volume through the late holocene.

Changes in sea level through recent millennia have been found to be very small. See for instance Kopp et al whose Fig1a looks like this: You need to be logged in to post a comment.

Login via the left margin or if you're new, register here. The Consensus Project Website. Settings Use the controls in the far right panel to increase or decrease the number of terms automatically displayed or to completely turn that feature off.

The Physical Science Basis. This Elastic Earth Key Points Melting of the massive land-based ice sheets that formed during the peak of the last ice age approx 20, years ago is still affecting sea level today.

As ice mass drained into the global oceans in the form of glacial meltwater, this exchange of mass created collapsing areas of ocean floor into which the ocean water was slowly siphoned.

This deepening of the ocean basins was effectively disguised until such time glacial meltwater was no longer being added to the oceans. The reason for this is that the rate of glacial meltwater-driven global sea level rise was much greater than the rate of ocean basin deepening and therefore obscured this process.

Once the natural orbitally-driven warming had ceased, eventually so too did the addition of meltwater to the global oceans. Because the ocean volume was no longer increasing, the siphoning of seawater into the collapsing seafloor regions became the dominant signal, and "relative" sea level for much of the Earth actually declined for most of the last years.

This "relative" sea level fall exposed the "three metre beaches" which are common throughout the equatorial ocean.

With human-caused climate change now underway, the seas are rising and this ocean basin-deepening effect is once again disguised because the rate of current sea level rise is outpacing the rate of ocean basin collapse and siphoning.

Satellites that measure global sea level height add 0. The supposition of warm periods in human history Roman, Minoan or Medieval approaching anything like the global warmth of modern-day is contradicted by paleo sea level research.

Current sea level rise and globally-synchronous ice melt is anomalous.

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